New York - New York City has always been a towering city. But with 16 buildings over 500 feet tall scheduled to be completed this year, 2019 could be the most active year for the city's new skyscrapers.
The city's skyline was dominated by the Empire State Building and the Chrysler Building for more than 1,000 feet in the early 1930s. But for most of the past decade, the skyline of New York has been constantly changing.
這座城市的天際線被帝國大廈(Empire State Building)和克萊斯勒大廈(Chrysler Building)主宰了許多年，這兩座建于1930年代初的建筑高度都超過了1000英尺。但是近十年的大部分時間里，紐約的地平線一直都在不斷變化。
Of the tall buildings already built in New York City, nine are more than 1,000 feet high, seven of which were built after 2007. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, a non-profit organization based in Chicago that tracks and evaluates high-rise buildings, there are 16 such high-rises – nearly twice the current number – - Being planned or under construction.
紐約市內已經建成的高樓中，有九座超過1000英尺高，其中七座建于2007年以后。據總部位于芝加哥、追蹤和評估高層建筑的非營利性機構世界高層建筑與都市人居學會(Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat)，還有16座這樣的高樓——將近兩倍于現在的數量——正在計劃或建設中。
This round of new construction waves is unprecedented.
The New York skyline looks a lot different than it was a decade ago. Redrawing it is the large Hudson Yards project in Manhattan's West End, the high-rises on the Midtown's Billionaires' Row and surrounding clusters, and One World by the World Trade Center (One World) Trade Center) leads the revival of Lower Manhattan. The recent re-planning in the Midtown East will cut more strange silhouettes of the city skyline. Luxury apartment high-rise buildings will soon set new heights in Brooklyn and Queens.
紐約的天際線看起來與十年前相比已經大為不同。重繪它的是曼哈頓西區的哈德遜園區(Hudson Yards)大型項目、中城“億萬富豪街”(Billionaires’ Row)上和周圍群簇的高樓以及由世界貿易中心一號大樓(One World Trade Center)引領的曼哈頓下城的復興。最近中城東區在進行的重新規劃將為城市天際線剪出更多陌生的剪影。豪華公寓高層建筑也將很快在布魯克林和皇后區刷新出新的高度。
Why is it now? From technological advances to speculative booms in luxury apartments, a combination of factors has encouraged developers to take higher floors and take advantage of old urban planning provisions that cannot keep up with construction technology breakthroughs. Some people think that these planned loopholes are also resources that can be developed. Just like the buildings that captured the imagination of New York before a generation, new office buildings are rising, but they can only be divided equally with those millions of apartment buildings.
Crack in the skyline
The new skyline is amazing, in part because of the speed of new entrants. In 1931, in a highly contested, three-pronged race, the Empire State Building stood out at 1,250 feet with the rigorously protected spire, surpassing the recently completed Chrysler Building (1047 feet). And a tall building (927 feet) on the 40th Wall Street, now known as the Trump Building.
This record has never been broken, and the skyline remains almost the same until 1972 when the World Trade Center was completed, reaching a new height of 1,368 feet.
這個紀錄一直無人打破，天際線幾乎保持著原樣，直到1972年世貿大廈(World Trade Center)落成，達到了1368英尺的新高度。
When the World Trade Twin Towers collapsed in 2001, the entire city was mournful. Judith Dupré, an architectural historian and a book on skyscrapers, said, “People instinctively perceive that the skyline has been torn apart.” Until the new World Trade Center No. 1 in 2014 After the completion, the crack was filled. The symbolic height of the building reached 1,776 feet, setting a new record. (If you don't count the spires, the building itself is 1368 feet high.)
The World Trade Center No. 1 is still the tallest building in the city, but a large number of skyscrapers are closely following, most of which are residential buildings. This marks a significant change, with the skyline dominated by office buildings and executive suites concentrating on providing the best view for wealthy residents.
According to the World Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat Society, when the Singer Building in Lower Manhattan became the first building in the city to exceed 500 feet in height in 1908, only 26% of buildings of similar height were Designed for housing needs. From 2010 to the present, 64% of the high-rise buildings, including the projects under construction, are residential buildings, most of which are luxury apartments.
“The trend in housing prices is definitely related to the height of the building,” said Jonathan J. Miller, president of property valuation firm Miller Samuel. He pointed out that in the past decade, having an unobstructed view has become a necessary condition for the most expensive apartment buildings.
“房價趨勢肯定與建筑高度息息相關，”房產評估公司Miller Samuel的總裁喬納森·J·米勒(Jonathan J. Miller)說。他指出，在過去十年里，擁有一覽無遺的景觀已經成為那些最昂貴的公寓樓的必要條件。
This is a recent phenomenon. In 2003, at a height of 750 feet, overlooking 25 Columbus Circle in Central Park, an apartment sold a record $43 million. The deal has helped fuel the luxury apartment boom in Midtown. According to the real estate information website StreetEasy, the average selling price of the apartment reached $2,630 per square foot, and at that time, the price of $1,000 per square foot was considered optimistic.
這是個最近才有的現象。2003年，在高達750英尺，可以俯視中央公園(Central Park)哥倫布圓環25號(25 Columbus Circle)，一套公寓賣出了創紀錄的4300萬美元。這筆交易對中城的豪華公寓熱潮起到了推波助瀾的作用。根據房地產信息網站StreetEasy，這套公寓的平均售價達到了每平方英尺2630美元，而在當時，每平方英尺1000美元的售價就已經被認為很樂觀了。
By 2007, some developers had been able to sell homes for $3,000 per square foot, which are often derived from great landscapes. In 2012, Russian billionaire Dmitry Rybolovlev bought a $88 million flat at the top floor of 15 West Avenue, Central Park, at a record price of $1,049,000 per square foot. Apartment. No. 15 West Avenue, Central Park is a high-rise building made of limestone. The 360-degree panoramic view of the city has pushed up its price and has also created a higher-than-competitive building.
“In most of these buildings, less than 20 floors will not be used as dwellings because their landscapes have been obscured,” said Daniel Safari, editor of the World High-rise Building and Urban Habitat Society. Safarik) said.
At the same time as the construction momentum of high-rise residential buildings took off, some commercial buildings were in a difficult situation. In March, the prestigious Chrysler Building was sold for only $151 million, and in 2008 an Abu Dhabi sovereign wealth fund bought $90 million when it bought 90% of its shares. Part of the reason for the sharp fall in prices came from expensive land leases, but it also reflected changes in investor interest.
Alchemy Properties spent $68 million in 2012 to buy the top 30 floors of the 792-foot Woolworth Building, which was once the world's tallest building and was called "commercial." cathedral". The company transformed its office space into 30 luxury apartments, the cheapest one-bedroom for $36 million. The 9710-square-foot "Tower of the Attic", located inside the copper roof, was finally priced at $110 million.
煉金地產公司(Alchemy Properties)在2012年斥資6800萬美元買下了高792英尺的伍爾沃斯大廈(Woolworth Building)頂部的30層，這座大樓一度是世界第一高樓，被稱作“商業大教堂”。這家公司將辦公空間改造成了30套奢華公寓，最便宜的一居室3600萬美元起售。位于銅制屋頂內部、面積9710平方英尺的“塔尖閣樓”最終標價1.1億美元。 紐約時報中英文網 http://www.zvkdrb.live
“Developers always have a lot of self-awareness,” says Kenneth S. Horn, president of Alchemy Properties, who is referring to the high level of concern of some of his peers. Although it is not the tallest building in the city, not even the tallest building in the vicinity, the Woolworth Building still has a panoramic view of the city, which Horn said is a key element of the related residential renovation plan.
“開發商總是會摻雜許多自我意識，”煉金術地產公司(Alchemy Properties)的總裁肯尼斯·S·霍恩(Kenneth S. Horn)說，他指的是一些同行對高度的關注。盡管已經不是這個城市的第一高樓，甚至都不是這附近最高的建筑了，伍爾沃斯大廈仍然可以一覽城市全景，霍恩說這正是相關住宅改造計劃的一個關鍵要素。
Regardless of the motivation, it is the advancement of technology that has made the recent high-rises possible.
“Because we can do it,” said Stephen V. DeSimone, CEO of DeSimone Consulting Engineers. He has been involved in the construction of several new super high-rise buildings.
“因為我們能做得到，”德西蒙咨詢工程公司(DeSimone Consulting Engineers)首席執行官斯蒂芬·V·德西蒙(Stephen V. DeSimone)說。他已經參與建設了好幾座新的超高層建筑。
Stronger cement, faster and more efficient elevators, and more sophisticated computer modeling systems allow developers to build taller buildings on smaller sites, with a larger footprint in the past Much more, he said. A deeper understanding of aerodynamics allows the slender building spires to swing four to six feet in all directions.
He also said that before 2005, few buildings would install a mechanical device called a damper, a shock absorber that was usually installed on the top of a tall building to reduce the discomfort caused by the shaking of the building. Now he estimates that there are about a dozen buildings in New York with dampers.
Engineering solutions also mean more efficient use of planning vulnerabilities. In New York, developers are often limited to a land use algorithm that determines the height and volume of buildings that are allowed to be built. Frank E. Chaney, a lawyer at the Rosenberg & Estis real estate law firm, says that the ability to build more “slender” buildings means occupying smaller areas of land. In some neighborhoods, this means that developers can “based on legal rights” without having to submit petitions to the city, bypassing the tedious and lengthy review process and directly building very high projects.
工程解決方案也意味著能夠更有效地利用規劃漏洞。在紐約，開發商通常受限于一種土地使用算法，后者決定了建筑物被允許建造的高度和體量。羅森博格-艾斯蒂斯(Rosenberg & Estis)房地產法律事務所的律師弗蘭克·E·錢尼(Frank E. Chaney)說，有能力建造更“苗條”的建筑意味著會占據更小面積的土地，這在一些街區就意味著開發商能夠“依據合法權利”，不必向城市提交請愿書，繞開那些繁瑣冗長的審核流程，直接建設非常高的項目。
A common means of achieving higher building heights is to purchase the unused development potential of adjacent facilities, the so-called "air rights", through which operations accumulate a taller building.
“Going back 10 to 15 years ago is not as common as it is now,” Cheney said when talking about these mergers. "Now everyone is doing this."
Critics point out that some newly built buildings use the way of building ultra-high mechanical houses to drill the planned holes, because these spaces are not counted in the area allocated to developers. This approach is also effective in pushing apartment buildings to the sky, creating a higher premium.
On the horizon
Despite the endless stream of new buildings, there are also creative designs, and some people complain that skyscrapers are not as surprising and fascinating as they used to be.
“For many city dwellers, the excitement brought about by the new skyscrapers has been diluted by the economic situation, and living in a beloved city has made them unable to afford it,” Dupre said.
There are also people who are dissatisfied with the sluggish and uniform appearance of many new buildings.
“If you ask someone, 'How many residential buildings are more than 800 feet?' They would say one, two, or too many.” Chief of the Empire State Realty Trust Executive officer Anthony E. Malkin said. (The answer is 10 buildings - six of which will be completed within this year.)
“如果你問某人，‘有多少幢超過800英尺的住宅樓？’他們會說一幢，兩幢，或是太多了。“帝國大廈所有者帝國房地產信托(Empire State Realty Trust)的首席執行官安瑟尼·E·馬爾金(Anthony E. Malkin)說。（答案是10幢——其中六幢將在今年內建造完畢。）
Miller pointed out that there are signs that the prosperity of super-tall buildings may be slowing down, at least in the short term. Most of these recently built buildings are driven by the market demand for luxury apartments, which peaked around 2016 and the market has already accumulated a large number of unsold new apartments.
He said that at the current sales rate, it would take nine years to sell all 9000 unsold suites.
Perhaps this time is enough for developers to plan the construction of the next batch of skyscrapers.